AMERICAN APPETITE

Audio-book Review
By Chet Yarbrough

(Blog:awalkingdelight)
Website: chetyarbrough.com

Thomas Cromwell: The Untold Story of Henry VIII’s Most Faithful Servant

Written by: Tracy Borman

Narrated by: Julian Elfer

TRACY BORMAN (AUTHOR, BRITISH HISTORIAN)

While Hilary Mantel wets American appetites for Thomas Cromwell with “Wolf Hall” and “Bring Up the Bodies”, Tracy Borman offers a British perspective.

THOMAS CROMWELL AT ESTIMATED AGE (IN HIS 40S)

“Thomas Cromwell” is shown by Mantel and Borman to be a commoner with uncommon intelligence.  He rises from a blacksmith’s son to become among the most powerful government administrators of the 16th century.  Cromwell is the consummate power behind the throne of King Henry VIII.  He manages to reform the Roman Catholic church in England, the power of aristocratic government, and the wealth of the British throne; all the while placating a volatile and often shallow King.

In the 21st century, one wonders if there is an American equivalent to Thomas Cromwell in President Trump’s administration. If there is, he/she is undiscovered.  Whether there is a person behind Trump’s erratic pronouncements, Borman shows existence of a modern American Cromwell is a mixed blessing.

KING HENRY BY HOLBEIN (C. 1536-1546)

Borman characterizes King Henry as one who seeks wealth, power, and prestige in every government policy and action.  Wealth is drawn from confiscation of Roman Catholic Church’ s land and wealth.  Power is taken with the King’s appointment as head of a newly formed Church of England.  Prestige is pursued with King Henry’s six marriages–meant to preserve his royal lineage.  It is Borman’s contention that each of these pursuits are largely accomplished through the machination and administration of Thomas Cromwell.

As a commoner, Cromwell is a consummate go-between.  With Cromwell’s personal experience and innate intelligence, he caters to aristocracy while placating, and sometimes aiding English commoners.  Cromwell is tutored by Cardinal Wolsey, King Henry’s former administrator who is also a commoner.  Wolsey is a trusted aide and a Roman Catholic Church Cardinal who acts as a go-between for the Church and the King.  Wolsey sets the table for Cromwell’s rise to power.

King Henry becomes disenchanted with Wolsey’s failure to convince the Pope to annul Henry’s first marriage. Though Cromwell does his best to protect Wolsey from the King, Wolsey loses his position, and dies on his way to the Tower of London.

———(PAINTING BY JOHN PETTIE “THE DISGRACE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY”)———

Cromwell cleverly maneuvers his way into the King’s grace by creating a legal justification for the creation of the Church of England.

The King becomes the Catholic Church’s sole leader in England.  With that religious schism, the reformation of Catholicism begins.  On the one hand, Cromwell exhibits the quality of a true believer in denying the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church; on the other, he hugely increases the wealth and power of King Henry.  Henry legally annuls his first marriage.  He marries Anne Boleyn.  As reward, Cromwell becomes the favorite of the King.  Cromwell is given license to reform English Catholicism. In that reform there is a confiscatory process that makes King Henry one of the wealthiest monarchs in the world.

Cromwell is shown to be enlightened and parochially narrow-minded at the same time.  Cromwell believes the bible should be available to all.  He endorses Tyndales’s New Testament as the first printed edition of the scripture in the English language.  Cromwell disavows Roman Catholic Church indulgences that imply followers can buy their way into heaven.

16TH CENTURY TORTURE (Cromwell believes torture reveals the truth.)

At the same time, Cromwell believes torture reveals the truth and uses it to convict innocent citizens that justifies government policies desired by King Henry.

Through Cromwell’s catalog of lies, King Henry is able to divorce Boleyn and marry for a third time.

QUEEN ANNE BOLEYN (1501-1536, Anne Boleyn is beheaded based on torture induced confessions and false testimony of alleged lovers interrogated by Cromwell.)

Anne Boleyn is beheaded based on torture induced confessions and false testimony of alleged lovers interrogated by Cromwell.

However, Borman notes that Cromwell is a protector of women; even though he is the perpetrator of injustice toward Boleyn.  Borman recounts letters of appeal from several women that acknowledge help given by Cromwell.  They are letters about abuse by men, or from wives left poor by death or divorce of their husbands.

 

ANNE OF CLEAVES (1515-1557, PICTURE PAINTED BY HANS HOLBEIN SAID TO HAVE ENHANCED HER APPEARANCE)

With the death of Henry’s third wife, Cromwell arranges a marriage for the King to a German Princess, Anne of Cleaves.  This becomes, in Borman’s history, the beginning of the end for Cromwell’s tenure as the force behind the throne.

King Henry is no longer young, and his physical being has diminished by less exercise and greater weight. His new queen is not to his liking.  Though there may have been some political value to the marriage, there is no physical attraction.  These negatives are compounded by evidence that Queen Anne had been married before and her former husband is killed to facilitate her marriage to Henry.  Cromwell is alleged to have knowledge of the previous betrothal before Anne’s marriage to Henry.

THOMAS HOWARD (3RD DUKE OF NORFOLK, UNCLE OF ANNE BOLEYN)
THOMAS HOWARD (4TH DUKE OF NORFOLK)

King Henry becomes enamored with a potential fifth wife, Catherine Howard, who is the niece of the Duke of Norfolk.  The Duke of Norfolk is a bitter enemy of Cromwell.  Though King Henry soon divorces Catherine Howard (she is beheaded for adultery), the Duke of Norfolk begins a campaign to unseat Cromwell from his favored position with the King.  Though not mentioned by Borman, Henry marries for a sixth time but the King dies before finding cause for pursuit of a seventh wife.

—————————————-HENRY THE VIII’S WIVES———————————————

In Borman’s final assessment, Cromwell is convicted of treason for failing to protect the King from his marriage to Anne of Cleaves.  However, Borman suggests the underlying cause for Cromwell’s demise is that he was a commoner among aristocrats who resented his power.  In an epilogue Borman notes that authors picture Thomas Cromwell as villain and savior in different revisionist eras.  He is a villain for destroying the power of the Roman Catholic Church.  He is a savior for reforming the transgressions of the church.  He is a Machiavellian terror in some histories; he is a clever lawyer and statesman in others.

Borman’s history of Cromwell resonates to some because it reminds one of Trump’s ascension to the American presidency. Though Trump is no King, he is an aristocrat of wealth surrounded by members of the same aristocracy.

DONALD TRUMP (45TH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. Trump seems to have some of the same shallow characteristics of King Henry.  If there is a “Cromwell” in Trump’s administration, he/she should appraise his leadership in the context of  loyalty to class.)

Trump seems to have some of the same shallow characteristics of King Henry.  If there is a “Cromwell” in Trump’s administration, he/she should appraise his leadership in the context of  loyalty to class.  Trump, like King Henry, cares little about commoners; except as they benefit his wealth, power, and prestige.

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