Category Archives: Las Vegas Review Journal




By Chet Yarbrough


Union strikes are big news.  They stop traffic, interrupt business, and disrupt lives.  But “big news” hides the real story, the things that union’s do that few know about.


Crystal Slaughter is a Teamster member, President of WACA (Western Apprenticeship Coordinators Association), and Director of Convention and Construction Training for Teamsters Local 631.  Slaughter set up a meeting to discuss union apprenticeship programs.  Slaughter invited Tommy Blitsch who is the Union Chairman of Teamsters 631 Convention Training Program, and Secretary Treasurer of Teamsters Local 631.

Every convention that comes to town is dependent on performance of Teamsters to deliver, set up, and breakdown convention exhibits.  Las Vegas could not be the convention superstar it is without union help.  That help begins with a training program organized by Teamsters Local 631 that specializes in convention construction and customer service.

Slaughter said, “We just opened applications for our (Convention Training) program and had nearly 1,000 people apply.”  Slaughter noted that Teamsters Local 631 offers applicants America’s “…premier tradeshow and convention industry training program”.  Local 631 created the first Department of Labor’-accredited and registered convention apprenticeship program in the United States.  As part of training in transport, set-up, and breakdown, Teamsters Local 631 offers OSHA safety classes, certification and re-certification of Journeyman equipment operators, and earned credits toward a college degree.  Slaughter said, “Since 2001, we have trained over 1,000 apprentices who are now Journeyman and Convention Industry professionals.  (For more information call 702-651-0344 or email

Careers are made by Union Apprenticeship programs.


Meeting Bobbie Whitmore, a member of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, offers a behind-the-curtain look at a union member.  Whitmore said, “I have been a union member for 34 years.”  Having started in the hospitality industry, Whitmore felt there was another career to better suit her ambition.

Whitmore said, “I was introduced to the Carpenters’ Union through CETA (the Comprehensive Employment Training Act passed during the Nixon Administration) and began volunteering to support and recruit women to join the union.”  With that union introduction, Whitmore joined the United Brotherhood of Carpenters to apprentice with a Journeyman Carpenter. Whitmore explained, “It changed my life”.  Whitmore’s take-home pay as an apprentice doubled after joining the union.  She raised 6 children on her family’s income.


Whitmore is now the “Female Programs & Outreach Coordinator” for the “Southwest Carpenters Training Fund”, located at 4131 E. Bonanza Road in Las Vegas.  Whitmore participates as a fund representative at colleges, high schools and community organizations to share the opportunities available for men and women through apprenticeship training.  Whitmore said, “Construction is still considered a man’s job by many, which creates its own challenges, but the key to achievement in any field is education.”  She goes on to say, “We need more women applying for apprenticeships in all trades because recruitment is not keeping pace with member retirement.”

The “Southwest Carpenters Training Fund” is a non-profit union affiliate that promotes and trains men and women for a career in the carpentry fields.  The “…Training Fund” is designed to teach construction specialties ranging from foundation form work to drywall finishing to general carpentry and weatherization.  It is a myth to suggest construction was better before the advent of construction specialization.  Without training offered by unions like the United Brotherhood of Carpenters, quality construction would suffer, production would diminish, and worker safety would decrease.

In looking at the website for the “Southwest Carpenters Training Fund” (, one can see that there are career opportunities in the carpentry fields.  The website is a good information source on how to start a career in construction.


Whitmore introduced Lily McCann and Jeffrey Kelley, two apprentices in the program.  McCann explained, “I was working two jobs when my mother told me about a Union apprenticeship opportunity.”  McCann said, “It helped to know someone to get into the program but once enrolled, it offered a career opportunity for a working mom.”

Jeffrey Kelley just graduated from “Job Corps” in Colorado.  He said, “Job Corps” gave me work experience that improved my eligibility for a Union apprenticeship job through the ‘Southwest Carpenters Training Fund’”.  Whitmore explained, “Getting into an Apprenticeship program is a great opportunity because you get paid while you are learning.”  Whitmore noted, “It is important for young people to get a high school diploma or GED because basic education is essential for success in the workplace.”

Ron Warde, a Site Facilitator for SWCTF, said, “Every Carpenter apprentice and Journeyman receive a training card with a posted QR code that provides every  employer a detailed resume of carpentry experience and job safety training for the person pictured on the card”.CARPETERS UNION_2610An employer knows exactly what training and certifications a union employee has when he/she comes to the job.  Warde explained, “When an employer calls for a particular number of foundation framers, finish carpenters, drywall hangers, or drywall finishers, the union is able to respond with exactly what the employer needs.”  Union training reduces an employer’s concern about job safety training and work qualification when union employees come to the job.

A part of job satisfaction comes from camaraderie inherent in being a part of something larger than one self.  The “Southwest Carpenters Training Fund” sponsors a labor fest once a year (except for last year because of the economy) to celebrate the experience that apprentice and journeymen union members receive through training and work.  Food, competition, and education fill the hall in a celebration of American labor.


Marvin Gebers, the Director of Training for the Operative, Plasterers & Cement Masons, is always looking for new apprentices.  Three of the most physically demanding jobs in construction are concrete placement and finish, masonry, and plastering.  Gebers said, “When the market was blowing and going, we had 2,000 skilled laborers in this Local–now, we have less than 1,100.”  Gerbers indicated that reduction in members is related to the market but a big concern is retiring journeymen and lack of young people coming into the trades.

Gerbers explained, “We are competing with higher education, office work, and less rigorous physical requirements of other jobs.”  Anyone wishing to join the OPCM, must have a high school diploma and be willing to work hard.  Before being considered for training, an aspiring apprentice needs to pass a written test which includes basic math and geometry learned in high school.


A chosen apprentice has the opportunity to be paid while learning how to work.  There is no guarantee of on-job training because it depends on market demand but at least there is an opportunity to earn while you learn.     A qualified applicant will spend 4 years with 640 hours of class and 5,000 hours of on-job-training to become a journeyman.  Gebers explained, “We are presently teaching two classes with the first having 10 cement masons and 12 plasterers, and a second class with 6 cement masons and no plasterers.”  The apprentices range in age from 22 to 50.  Gerbers said, “The College of Southern Nevada offers 29 college credits for successful completion of the OPCM classes.”

This is hard work.  It is not for everyone but apprenticeship wages, when jobs are available, are 50% to 70% of journeyman wages, or between $17 and $20 per hour take home pay.   As the apprentice becomes more skilled, health benefits become part of their pay package.

An applicant needs to be physically fit as well as educationally prepared.  Plasterers and masons, like many trade disciplines, are primarily taught through Union apprenticeship programs like that offered by Local 797 of the Operative, Plasterers & Cement Masons union.  Marvin Gebers can be contacted at (702) 452-8809 or emailed at


Another fascinating trade is represented by Jon Yunker, the President/Coordinator of the International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators.  The union apprenticeship telephone number is (702) 649-7897.  Yunker’s email address is . (Yunker is also a General Foreman for Southwest Specialty Contractors.)

Yunker and Aaron Quiroz, V.P. Local #135 (who is also an instructor for the class room), offered a guided tour during one of the evening classes.  Yunker explained, “All fabrication in these class rooms was done by students or journeymen that contributed their time to demonstrate skills of the trade.”

Yunker said, “We are considered one of the best heat and frost insulator apprenticeships in the country”.  Nearly every casino in Las Vegas has been worked on by apprentices taught at this school.  Everything from heat gain and loss analysis to insulation fabrication for heating and cooling systems is taught at this school.  Yunker noted, “Thousands of dollars in monthly office and casino building operating costs have been saved through conservation measures made by heat and frost insulators trained at this school.”


The heat and frost insulator school is totally supported by unions that are part of WACA.  No other educational facility offers more hands on practical experience.  A Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee (JATC) will select apprentices for the training.  When applications are open (advertised 2X/year in the Las Vegas Review Journal), six criteria must be met by aspiring apprentices.

  1. Birth Certificate 18 years of age. Original will be photocopied and returned.
  2. High School Diploma or G.E.D. Original will be photocopied and returned.
  3. High School Transcripts. Original will be photocopied and returned.
  4. Must be physically able to perform the work of the trade.
  5. Those who meet the minimum qualifications will be scheduled for an oral interview.
  6. Those applicants selected are subject to a substance abuse test, prior to being selected for the apprenticeship program.  The date and time to be determined.

Once an apprentice signs up, he/she will attend a minimum of five years of night school with 720 hours of classroom training and 8,000 hours of On-the-Job-Training.  A Commercial Apprentice will earn 50% of Commercial Journeyman wages when on the job (Journeymen presently earn $41/hour).  Union schools, unlike academic institutions, pay students to learn through on-the-job experience.


Moshe Bialac is a Socratic gadfly for Southwest unions.  By title, he is the Statewide Job Coordinator at Nevada State AFL-CIO but one of his specific tasks, sponsored by a State of Nevada grant, is to assist employees that have received warning notices of imminent layoffs.  When large employers face economic conditions that require mass layoffs, Bialac assists management in transitioning the soon-to-be-unemployed through a “Rapid Response Lay-Off Aversion” program.

Bialac travels the State, from Gabbs to Ely—from Jackpot to Las Vegas, to help employees work through loss of their jobs.  Bialac explains how to write resumes, change careers, and capitalize on learned skills. In his travels, he speaks at special events, K-12 schools, and Indian Reservations to emphasize the importance of getting a basic education.

Bialac said, “People often do not realize how much they know and how many of their skills translate to other kinds of jobs.”  He adds, “There are many training opportunities offered by Nevada Unions that are not known by job seekers.”  Losing a job is hard.  Jobs give American’s identity.  Bialac knows what it is like to change direction in life.  Working in the film industry, Bialac lost the use of his legs in a camera accident.  Bialac’s experience reinforces the talks he gives at Rapid Response meetings.

In his bag of brochures, Bialac carries a Nevada State AFL-CIO pamphlet titled “A Directory of Nevada Unions and Training Programs”.  There are 65 pages of contact numbers for apprenticeship programs sponsored by various Union Locals throughout the State of Nevada.

Bialac noted, “Rural youths are difficult to recruit into trades because they do not know or understand their alternatives.”  College is often out of reach because of its expense.  The military is an avenue out of town, but now the military is becoming less available.  Bialac said, “A part of my mission in life is to explain to young and old that there are many alternatives for a good and prosperous life in Nevada.”

Learning a trade carries as much weight as a college degree.  Unions help make a good life possible for many who cannot afford college or cannot wait to begin their adult life.  Union apprenticeships are a win-win for American society.

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Las Vegas leaps into the film and television business in 2013 with its first boutique school.  The new school is the International Academy of Film and Television, a school designed to educate students in the business of film making and acting.


IAFT is planning its first classes in November 2013.  Suzanne Noel (office 702 454-3469, cell 716 830-0772), a former Director of Admissions at the Art Institute of Las Vegas, is the Senior Admissions Director.  The doors of IAFT are barely open but Noel said, “We are ready for enrollment with our first classes scheduled to begin November 11, 2013.”

Some building modifications are required to accommodate cameras, sound equipment, lights, and digital needs of the school but Noel insists the school will be ready to open in November.


The Campus Director, Ron Herbes, said, “My life has been a preparation for starting a school like this.”  Herbes began working in the film industry when his father was Director-VP of Facilities at 20th Century Fox Film Corporation in Ventura, California.  Working at Fox Film Corporation, Universal Studios, Disney and many major Hollywood studios, Herbes lived and learned everything he could about acting, film, and sound production in the movie and television industry.  His lessons in learning-by-doing are the sine qua non of his philosophy for IAFT.

Herbes was involved in every aspect of the film industry from editing to post production supervision.  Though still young, Herbes said, “I have been in the industry for 20 years, working on thousands of films and a number of television series.”  In 2001, Herbes moved to Las Vegas to teach audio and visual media to local studios and schools as a consultant.


Rather than continue as an independent consultant, Herbes was hired by International Academy of Design & Technology to expand their existing Audio Program.  The program grew to be the largest Audio training program in Nevada.  Herbes was promoted to Manager of Community Relations until his departure in September of 2013.

Rumors were spreading that a film making and actor training school was planning entry into Las Vegas.  Herbes called IAFT on August 26th, interviewed on August 28th, and started work September 16, 2013.

The International Academy of Film and Television was founded by Michael Gleissner in 2004 in the Philippines.  After Gleissner’s success with IAFT’s Cebu island school in the Philippines, Gleissner started schools in Miami, Los Angeles, and Hong Kong.

IAFT offers two and four-term programs for filmmaking and acting.  Depending on student interest and performance, the two term program leads to a Certificates of Completion and the four term program leads to a Diploma.  The Cebu school contains “state of the art” equipment according to IAFT’s promotional brochure.

Herbes is the Las Vegas Campus Director.  His plan, which worked well in the past, is to recruit filmmakers and actors that are active in their professions to be teachers.  They will teach interested students the art and administration of filmmaking, screenwriting, and acting based on their personal experience.  The design of classes is based on industry fundamentals with hands-on work in film editing, screen writing, and acting as part of the curriculum.  Herbes will hire active filmmakers and actors that have the time to teach classes based on the school’s curriculum.

Acting and filmmaking are the arts of the movie and television industry.  An aspiring actor or filmmaker needs enthusiasm and talent but training and contacts are the ingredients that create entertainment industry breaks.  Classes with teachers that are actively working in the industry are inherently contact relevant.  Herbes’ management approach to IAFT’s Las Vegas School synergistically reinforces career opportunities.

IAFT offers a unique opportunity for continuing education.  A high school diploma is not enough for most people to succeed in America.  Every industry opportunity is suffused with an element of “who-you-know” and Herbes’ idea of attracting industry experts to teach the crafts of film making and acting offers industry contacts as well as education and experience.

The school will open its doors with 4 full-time employees but will be staffed by part-time industry professionals based on their job experience and the curriculum of IAFT.  As the school grows, more full-time staff will be hired with continued emphasis on teachers that have learned their profession by working in the industry.

There are two ten week terms in the Certificate program and four ten week terms in the Diploma program.  Each term at the school will have 140 classroom hours and 85 lab hours.  Classes will range from screenwriting to film making to financing, marketing, and distribution.  Lab hours will include on job training with everything from acting exercises to film editing to sound production.  The maximum students-to-teacher ratio in class rooms or labs is 12:1.

Classes will be held 4 days or evenings per week with an additional 8 ½ hour lab per week.  The first two terms are the same for the Certificate and Diploma programs.  The Diploma program extends the training of the first two terms but adds documentary film making, financing, marketing & distribution, career development and other advanced classes.

Film making labs will include cameras, microphones, lighting instruments, lighting control equipment, cables, camera, lighting support hardware, and computers.  Acting labs will include costumes, wigs, make-up and props.

The school plans to have a lending library of film making books, magazines and periodicals with the library open to students from 9:00 am to 6:00 pm Monday-Friday, except for holidays.  According to the school catalog, students“…will have access to ‘The Filmmakers Series DVD Collection.  This is IAFT’s customized instructional series featuring essential basic methods on screenwriting, directing and cinematography.”

There are four criteria for graduation.  To receive a Certificate of Completion or Diploma, a student must:

  1. Achieve a minimum cumulative average grade percentage of 70%.
  2. Attend 90% of course hours.
  3. Complete all courses.
  4. Pay tuition in full and be cleared of all financial obligations.

Graduates from IAFT are offered help for job placement after graduation. According to the IAFT catalog, the school will maintain a “…current list of industry job openings and makes this information available to graduates.”  There are no guarantees of job placement but getting a job after graduation is everyone’s goal.  Networking is certainly given a head start by the structure of Herbes’ plan to use industry employees to teach classes.

According to IAFT’s 2013-2014 Catalog, Las Vegas’s IAFT’ school is licensed by the State to “…operate as a private postsecondary institution.”

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) accredits IAFT and offers a limited number of grants for attendance.  All prospective students must have a high school diploma or GED to apply to IAFT.  Also, the new Las Vegas school will have a limited number of IAFT 50/50 scholarship awards.  Noel provided a scholarship application package that explains there are three criteria for eligibility:

  1. A high level of motivation to train for a career in film or acting
  2. Minimum GPA 2.50 from the last school graduated; and
  3. Household earnings are under $40,000 per year, and a need is determined.

Students will be interviewed by the Admissions Director to confirm student interest and course offerings.  Tuition ranges from $3,990 to $12,990.

IAFT is not the only school in Las Vegas that teaches the business of filmmaking and acting but it is the only school that specializes in those disciplines.  UNLV offers an undergraduate program in the “Department of Film”.  The undergraduate classes include English composition, literature, American history, mathematics, social science, computer science, foreign language, electives, and finally, film classes.  It is a four year program for a generalized education leading to a Bachelor’s Degree.

There are also some acting “schools” in Las Vegas.  There is John Armond “Actor’s Studio” and Brad Garrett’s “Acting Classes”.  John Armond offers class times on Mondays from 6:00 p.m.  To 8:30 p.m. for $125/month and private lessons for $60/hour.  Brad Garrett’s school is taught by Adam Hill, an actor that has worked on and off-Broadway.  Classes for Garrett’s school are $175/month for one class per week or $225/month for two classes per week.

IAFT is a completely different approach to filmmaking and actor training.  It is a boutique school with a singularly focused agenda.

IAFT’s address is 6363 S. Pecos Rd., Suite 103, Las Vegas, NV 89120.  The school is off the main street but is ideal for class study and offers great potential for growth.  Herbes said, “I can see a studio lot being created in the available warehouses behind the school.”

Timing could not be better.  After some cheerleading from Mayor Carolyn Goodman and lobbying by actor Nicolas Cage, Governor Sandoval signed tax incentive legislation for the film and television industry to encourage film making and movie production in Nevada.  Laura Carroll wrote in the Las Vegas Review Journal–“Beginning Jan. 1, productions that shoot at least 60 percent in-state can earn transferable tax credits of 15 percent to 19 percent of their qualified production expenses, including Nevada  cast, crew, labor, gear, rentals, purchases and expenses.”

Las Vegas seems primed for job growth in the film and television industry.  The table is set with Herbes promotion of IAFT and his recruitment of film and television personnel.  With warehouse availability at IAFT’s backdoor, and tax incentives from the State, the plates, silverware, coffee cups and glasses are on the table. The question is whether the film and television industry is willing to dine.

Las Vegas has been a movie-making town since 1960.   Frank Sinatra defined cool in “Ocean’s Eleven”.  Nicholas Cage, in his incredible Academy award-winning performance in “Leaving Las Vegas” defined human tragedy in 1995.Steven Soderbergh, with “Oceans Thirteen”, re-invented slick in 2007, and Galifianakis rocked the house with comedy in “The Hangover”, 2009.

Television shows in Las Vegas date back to 1962 with something called “Teenbeat Club”.  Since then–wildly popular productions like “Married with Children” and “CSI: Crime Investigation” have been set in Las Vegas.  Not all scenes in these movies and television series were filmed in Las Vegas but with a school like IAFT, a potential studio lot, an industry experienced promoter, and the State’s support a lot more jobs in the industry may come to Las Vegas.

Las Vegas is the entertainment capital of the world.  It seems the perfect spot for the training of a new generation of film and television moguls.  IAFT may be a door opener for further Las Vegas industry diversification.

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VERSION OF THIS ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN THE LAS VEGAS REVIEW JOURNAL                                          10/27/13




Mark your calendar.  Beginning October 1, 2013, the Federal Government required uninsured residents enroll in one of four health care insurance plans.  The following information explains how the Affordable Care Act works, how your premium can be calculated, where to go to get help, and what effect it has on business and the uninsured in Nevada.

Approximately $7,000,000 in grant money has been awarded to private Nevada companies and Nevada government agencies to explain and implement the insurance plan.  Much of that $7,000,000 is designed to educate the public on insurance plans offered through the Affordable Care Act passed in 2010.  Nevada created an advisory board and insurance exchange website (HealthCare.Gov) to explain the Affordable Care Act to Nevada residents.

Nevada presently has seven potential insurance providers:

  1. Aetna
  2. Anthem BlueCross BlueShield
  3. Coventry
  4. Health Plan of Nevada
  5. Humana
  6. Sierra Health and Life
  7. UnitedHealthOne

As of 9/15/13, Anthem BlueCross BlueShield and Health Plan of Nevada participate in the planned insurance exchange authorized by Governor Sandoval.   Aetna indicates on their website that “…Aetna has periodically updated the Aetna Advantage Plans for Individuals, Families and the Self-Employed to include any necessary changes (to comply with the Affordable Care Act). It is important for you to know that your Aetna Advantage Plan will always comply with all of the new federal health care reform legislation.”  Without presuming too much, the remaining insurance providers are considering the Affordable Care Act in their business plans.

Preventative care will compel medical service business expansion.  Preventative care is included in all four insurance plans mandated by the act.  (In retrospect, this feature of the Act may eliminate a consumer’s right to keep their current insurance plan because more health services are required than some existing policies offer.)

Office space for routine check-ups and preventative care will be needed to staff new businesses.  Health care facilities are popping up around the valley to meet expected demand.  Many entry level positions in the medical field will be needed.

Companies that specialize in health service insurance policies will expand their employment opportunities and facilities to accommodate rising demand.  With 600,000 uninsured Nevadans, and an estimated 29 million citizens nationwide, management and administration of health services will be monumental job creators.

As long as the health policy you have is either grandfathered in by the company you work for, or the policy you have meets “Essential Medical Services” of the Affordable Care Act, no fines are mandated for non-compliance with the Act. (Medicare/Medicaid complies with “Essential Medical Services” outlined in the Affordable Care Act.) 


  1. You already have insurance from your employer or you have a private policy that complies with the AHC coverage requirements.
  2. You have Medicare/Medicaid

With an estimated 600,000 uninsured Nevada residents, the Affordable Care Act offers a number of immediate short-term and long-term employment opportunities.  A part of Federal and State grant dollars to private companies is used to hire and train part-time employees to help Nevada residents enroll in Affordable Care’ health insurance plans.  The title of the part-time position is “Enrollment Assistant”.    Training and education programs will require more classrooms and teachers to train needed enrollment and medical services personnel.

In addition to part-time “Enrollment Assistant” positions, the Affordable Care Act is expected to increase demand for hospital and medical service staff to meet needs of formerly uninsured residents.

Uninsured Nevada residents will become eligible for preventative medical services in 2014.  Routine check-up, vaccination, and pre-natal care are mandated by the Affordable Care Act.


Companies like “Urgent Care Extra” have come to town with the capability of supplementing preventative medical services outlined in the Affordable Care Act.  Ty Hanks, the Medical Director, of this new company opened its first clinic in December of 2012.  Since then, five “Urgent Care Extra” facilities have opened in the Las Vegas Valley.  The latest opening is at 4575 Charleston Blvd., near the intersection of Charleston and Decatur.  Dr. Hanks said, “Five more clinics are planned in the next six months.”


“Urgent Care Extra” started seven years ago in Gilbert, Arizona.  Hanks and his wife, Jacki, opened a new chapter in their lives by moving from Gilbert to Las Vegas.  They expanded “Urgent Care Extra” Arizona to build a chapter of “Urgent Care Extra” in Las Vegas.  Dr. Hanks observed, “The Affordable Health Care Act is not the primary focus of their business model but they will be able to expand their service with its implementation”.

The objective of the clinic’s business model is to offer the “in-between” medical service needed by patients that either do not have a primary family physician or need medical help when their primary family physician is not available.  Dr. Hanks, a board certified orthopedist, explained, “We want to complement Las Vegas Valley’ physician’ services by developing working relationships in the medical community.”  If a patient needs help because of a broken leg at 3:00 p.m. on a Saturday or Sunday afternoon, “Urgent Care Extra” will X-ray the break, identify severity and either cast the injury or refer the patient to an appropriate specialist or primary physician for follow-up.  Dr. Hanks said, “Our objective is to be patient centered; with referral to specialists or primary family physician’s (if there is one) after immediate care has been given”.

Dr. Hanks said, “We have 12 part and full-time physicians for the five current ‘Urgent Care Extra’ clinics.”  Each facility is staffed by one or two physicians (either on-site or on-call), one or two medical assistants, a medical tech, and one or two front office personnel.

Ms. Hanks said, “We interview ten people for every job opening.”  She explained, “Social skill and technical ability are essential qualifications for employment because the clinic’s focus is on patient service.”  “Urgent Care Extra” uses IPAD and internet feedback applications to monitor patient perception of clinic services.  Ms. Hanks said, “I use patient feedback to improve staff morale and patient relationships.”

The Affordable Health Care Act will significantly increase demand for preventative care.  “Urgent Care Extra” is a needed and welcomed service in the Las Vegas Valley.

If you do not have employer-provided, personal, or family medical insurance that meets “Essential Medical Services”’ requirements, the Affordable Care Act requires purchase of health insurance from qualified private insurers  or through Silver State Health Insurance Exchange by  the end of 2013. 


1)You have no insurance for yourself or family.  You have three alternatives:

  • Seek insurance from Nevada’s Silver State Insurance Exchange.
  • Seek insurance from Nevada Health Co-Op.
  • Buy a policy from an insurance company that complies with “Essential Medical Services required by the ACA.

2)You refuse to buy medical insurance.  There are consequences:

  1. Pay a fine to the Federal Government. Beginning January 1, 2014, most un-insured will have to have health insurance or pay a fine. The fine is $95 per adult and $45.50 per child, up to a family maximum of $285 or 1 percent of family income.
  2. In 2015, fines increase to $325 per adult, $162.50 per child, and a family maximum of $975 or 2 percent of family income.
  3. In 21016, fines increase to $695 per adult, $347.50 per child, and a family maximum of $2,085 or 2.5 percent of family income.

Call “Silver State Insurance Exchange” at (775) 687-9939 or click www.nevadahealthlink for questions. For enrollment assistance ask for a “Navigator” to help you through the enrollment process.  Nevada Health CO-OP (not associated with “Silver State Insurance Exchange) at  (phone number 702-823-COOP) is also making appointments for enrollment in one of the 4 Essential Health Benefit plans required by the Affordable Care Act.

SUMMARY: The Affordable Care Act–signed into law on March 23, 2010.  The most significant impact for Nevada begins January 1 of 2014.

Effect on Business’ Group-Health Insurance:   

If a business has 50 or more full-time employees or full-time equivalent employees, employers must provide employee health insurance beginning January 1, 2015.

There are no penalties for 50-employee-companies until 2015.  Beginning January 1, 2015, a $2,000 annual penalty will be charged for each worker after the first 30.

All businesses with less than 50 full-time employees or full-time equivalent employees are exempt from the Affordable Care Act until 2016; at which time 1 to 100 employee companies will have to offer health insurance.

Small Businesses, fewer than 50 employees, are eligible for tax credits if they provide health insurance to their employees. For details on the tax credit, visit

By checking small businesses will find what tax credits are available for small businesses.

Businesses should carefully review hours of work. Even if employees do not work 30+ hours a week, which is the definition of a full-time employee, one equivalent employee is created when total part-time hours worked per week are divided by 120 with the nearest whole number being classified an equivalent full-time employee.

If an employer has not significantly changed their group medical coverage plan since March 23, 2010, the plan in place is grandfathered and the Affordable Care Act does not apply.

All non-grandfathered group health insurance plans are to eliminate annual or life time dollar limits.

If premium costs exceed 9.5 percent of an employee’s annual income, the coverage is considered “unaffordable” and the employer must look at “affordability safe harbors” provided in the Affordable Care Act.

Policies must have no lifetime or annual limits. Individuals cannot be removed from the plan.

Preventative health services are to be included. Coverage to be extended to the age of 26 for children of covered employees.

The insurance provider is to follow a proscribed format to explain provided insurance coverage that has minimum coverage in accordance with the Affordable Care Act.

Starting in 2014, health insurers will only be able to use age, composition of family, geographic area and tobacco as rating factors for insurance rates. (Same for individual policy)

Pre-existing condition exclusions and concomitant pricing of group policies will be prohibited beginning January 1, 2014. (Same for individual policy.)

Essential Health Benefits are a set of health care services that must be covered with no “annual or lifetime dollar limits.” These benefits may still have other limitations, such as a visit limit. (See essential benefits on Family Insurance side-same for group and private policies.)

Starting in 2014—if insurance companies spend less than 80 percent of their premiums on medical costs–they have to pay a rebate to their enrollees. For health plans that are operating in the large group market, if their medical costs are below 85 percent of the premiums, then they have to pay rebates to their enrollees.

There is wide disagreement on loss of jobs as a result of the Affordable Care Act.  Concern is raised about companies that will reduce employees or reduce hours of employees to stay below the 50 employee threshold.  Part time employee hours are aggregated and divided by 120 to classify employment numbers.   (Essential health benefit requirements are the same for ACA’ group health policies as private policies.)

Effect on Family Health Insurance:

If a Nevada resident does not have Medicare or a personal health insurance policy, beginning January 1, 2014, individual insurance policies become available through (aka Silver State Health Insurance Exchange).

Beginning January 1, 2014, health insurance cannot be denied to individuals for current or past health issues.  Also, no annual or lifetime dollar limits can be applied to insurance coverage.

If an individual adult makes less than $46,022 and does not receive health insurance from an employer, he/she is likely eligible for private policy premium assistance or Medicaid through the

If a family of four makes less than $93,701 and does not receive health insurance from an employer, they are likely eligible for private policy premium assistance or Medicaid through

Subsidized premiums for eligible individuals and families can be calculated by entering family income in a calculator shown at

Starting in 2014, health insurers will only be able to use age, composition of family, geographic area and tobacco as rating factors for insurance rates.

Beginning January 1, 2014, most people will have to have health insurance or pay a fine.  The fine is $95 per adult and $45.50 per child, up to a family maximum of $285 or 1 percent of family income.

In 2015, fines increase to $325 per adult, $162.50 per child, and a family maximum of $975 or 2 percent of family income.

In 2016, fines increase to $695 per adult, $347.50 per child, and a family maximum of $2,085 or 2.5 percent of family income.

Fines can be waived for several reasons, including financial hardship or religious beliefs.

Use the calculator @ to determine whether your family income is too low to require any payment for an insurance premium.  For example, if you enter $16,000 as family income for 2, no premium is charged and no fine for the insurance you sign up for is due.

Tax refunds may be withheld for non-compliance fines.

There are four categories of health plan.

  1. Bronze-covers 60% of medical costs.
  2. Silver-covers 70% of medical costs.
  3. Gold-covers 80% of medical costs
  4. Platinum-covers 90% of medical costs.

Adults under 30 can opt for lower-cost catastrophic plans. (Same for individual family policies.

Pre-existing condition exclusions and concomitant pricing of group policies will be prohibited beginning January 1, 2014.

ESSENTIAL benefits include:

  1. Ambulatory patient services;
  2. Emergency services;
  3. Hospitalization;
  4. Maternity and newborn care;
  5. Mental health and substance use disorder services, including behavioral health treatment;
  6. Prescription drugs; Rehabilitative and facilitative services and devices;
  7. Laboratory services; Preventive and wellness services and chronic disease management; and
  8. Pediatric services, including dental and vision care.

Preventive care services must be provided without any cost-sharing to you long as the service is provided by a network provider.

This means that a network provider cannot charge co-pays, deductibles or co-insurance to you or your family.

  1. These services include, but are not limited to: Blood pressure, diabetes and cholesterol tests;
  2. Many cancer screenings, including mammograms and colonoscopies;
  3. Counseling on such topics as smoking cessation, weight loss, eating healthy, treating depression, and reducing alcohol use;
  4. Regular well-baby and well-child visits from birth to age 21;
  5. Routine vaccinations against diseases such as measles, polio and meningitis;
  6. Counseling, screening and vaccines to ensure healthy pregnancies; and
  7. Flu and Pneumonia shots.

NBC News reports that the average premium for one person making $25,000/year, after federal tax credit is applied, will be $145/mo. for a “Silver” plan.  For a family of four making $50,000/year, after federal tax credit is applied, will be $282/mo. for a “Silver” plan.  One person making $46,000/year or more will receive no tax credit.

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On July 29, 2013, Christina Batalias, a ‘Y’ generation alien and twitterverse writer said, “I’d first like to state that I absolutely detest that word, “millennial.” It makes me feel like an alien who has formed inside a jar and subsequently fallen out of a UFO to inhabit this here Earth.”

Millennials have taken center stage in the 21st century. At maturity, the Millennial generation will be near 77,000,000 strong; i.e. the second largest population cohort in American history (Baby Boomers are near 79,000,000). Born between 1979 and 1994 (date range varies), Millennials are the most praised, nomadic, and networked generation in history. Because of size–the “Y” generation means a great deal to the future of America. The “Y” generation will be leading America in the 21st century.

The “Greatest Generation” is largely retired. “Baby Boomers” are nearing retirement and the “X” generation is too small to fill soon-to-be vacated business, government, and eleemosynary jobs. Today’s leaders, coming from the “Greatest Generation”, Baby Boomers, and the “X Generation” need to understand, embrace, and develop the “Y” generation. Millennials are tomorrows’ primary work force; some of which will become captains of industry, mavens of government, and/or leaders of non-profit organizations.
Parenthood is considered more important than marriage to Millennials by a margin of 22%. Millennials that marry look at marriage as a partnership that continues to offer career opportunities for each parent with an equal sharing of family and household responsibilities.

The Millennial generation is more ethnically diverse than previous cohorts with a 19% Hispanic population. One half of the Millennial population is of voting age; 19% have college degrees. Women see more value in a college education than men. By 2009, female enrollment in college outpaced men by 6%, 44% versus 38%. There are 8% more women college graduates than male graduates in 2010.


The Pew Research Center profiles Millennials as confident, connected, open to change, liberal, and upbeat. In spite of “Y” generation’ unemployment estimates of 10% to 16.2%, Millennials remain optimistic about their future. Millennials are closer to their parents than previous generations and are likely to be in touch (8 out of 10) with parents on a daily basis. In a book titled “Y-Size Your Business”, Jason Dorsey emphasizes the importance of parents to Millennials and suggests that employer contact with parents can be helpful in understanding and motivating Millennial employees.

Dorsey, a “Y” generation alumni himself, argues that Millennials, are highly motivated to work. Judging from some comments from today’s leaders and managers, there is disagreement. Dorsey believes the disagreement comes from lack of communication and understanding; i.e. a failure of organization managers to listen to, or understand, what motivates Millennial employees.

Dorsey notes that Millennials have lived a life of positive reinforcement from parents, teachers, etc. that has engendered a sense of entitlement. Millennials earned a reputation as the “me” generation that requires more frequent management feedback on performance than is presently practiced in most American organizations. Rather than quarterly or annual reviews of performance, Dorsey suggests weekly or monthly reviews; not lengthy written, file stuffing exercises, but brief ten minute interviews that may include constructive criticism and/or honest praise when warranted.

Questions rise about “Work to Live” vs. “Live to Work” when it comes to the “Y” generation. Without over-generalizing, Dorsey infers Millennials opt for a “Work to Live” life. To a Millennial, job security is a fiction, careers are ephemeral, and life balance is overrated.

Dorsey has many suggestions about what can be done to motivate and retain “Y” generation employees. He creates a sense of urgency by noting that Millennials are the future of the American way of life. Dorsey’s fundamental observation is that managers need to understand what motivates their employees and adapt their organizations to accommodate future needs in a way that continues to achieve organizational objectives. Human nature has not changed; i.e. it is simply valued by different degrees of desire for money, power, and prestige. Nothing Dorsey recommends violates standard management practices suggested by great teachers and consultants like Peter Drucker and William Edwards Demming.

Dorsey’s solution is to bridge the gap between focus on outcome and process by including process in discussion about outcome. Working weekends, longer hours, skipping vacations, etc. are de-motivators for most employees but particularly for Millennials that enter the work force as a generation that has been financially supported through school and only lately become aware of work requirements in a capitalist society. Because of Millennials’ life experience, Dorsey suggests that Matures (the “Greatest Generation), Boomer, and ”X” generation managers become more flexible with time at work by focusing on outcomes rather than process.

This refocus on outcomes can benefit all employees in an organization. It is not to suggest work times can be eliminated but that work times may be a considered management subject when determining corporate objectives. To Millennials, time is money, one of life’s three basic motivations. Viewed in that light, time-off when outcomes are satisfied, are reward for jobs well done.

An advantage of “outcome” focus is that Millennials are not impeded by pre-conceived notions of what worked in the past. Also, outcome becomes subject to re-evaluation. In other words, the question becomes–is traditional outcome still in the best interest of the organization or is it time to re-think outcomes?

According to Pew’s research, Millennials prefer learning by doing. Life experience suggests “doing” is a better teacher than following a proscribed procedure. “Doing” has the added benefit of possible discovery of improved process. The organizational ramification is that organization leaders may consider assigning tasks to “Y” generation employees without formal rules of process. The success of that idea requires current managers of Millennials to: (1) clearly define desired outcomes, (2) frequently review performance, and (3) organizationally reward good performance, commensurate with quantifiable achievement.

For the first time in history, four different generations exist in some organizations. The three earlier generations have come to a rough consensus on what it takes to lead and manage organizations. But, Millennials, though optimistic about the future, are not sure current leadership and management have the right ideas about what is needed to lead and manage the future.

Millennials are gamers. Pew notes that Millennials spend “…thousands of hours playing electronic, computer and video games.” Games offer thrills, competition, positive reinforcement, and fun that make most work environments look like a drag. Some companies like Zappos have created a work place that emulates the characteristics of games with competition for sales, immediate positive reinforcement for high performance, and a work environment that eschews formality and endorses fun. This is not to suggest organizations need to become game rooms but that attention should be paid to outcomes that are competition driven with positive commendation for achievement, and/or financial reward, in a more relaxed and enjoyable work environment.

Dorsey explains Millennials are not tech savvy but tech dependent. They are unlikely to know how technology works but they have grown up with what technology can do. Pew describes Millennials as digital natives; i.e. they “…adapt faster to computer and internet services because they have always had them.” This is not to suggest that technology replaces Millennial’ need for social contact; in fact, it amplifies desire for social contact because computers do not offer the human feedback Millennials are accustomed to received.

Pew notes that Millennials are “…prolific communicators”; i.e. they use blogs, Facebook and other social media websites to reveal themselves and communicate to friends and family all over the world. They use instant messaging, cell phones, and Skype to stay in touch. Networking is second nature. Consensus building is a natural extension of Millennials’ ability to manage 21st century organizations. The value to organizations is that consensus builds productivity.

Another interesting insight from the Pew’ research is that Millennials seek flexibility and convenience in life and work. Dorsey notes that in job interviews, “Y” generation job-seekers are as intent on interviewing employers as in being interviewed. Dorsey explains that Millennials are looking for jobs that fit their life style.


A brief interview of three interns that work at the “Las Vegas Review Journal” reinforces much of what Pew’s research and Dorsey’s book reveal. Erin Peretti is a junior at Penn State. Her family lives here in Las Vegas. She said, “I want to work for a magazine or publication that allows me to creatively pursue interesting subjects.” Matt Smith, a 3rd year student at UNLV, is open to working anywhere in the world that offers a good financial opportunity and interesting life experience. Sara Eggers, a senior at BYU, would like to stay in the Southwest and is looking for work in a management environment in which she would feel comfortable.

Time is money to both employer and employee. With an outcome focus, when tasks are assigned to a Millennial, he/she works as many hours as is required to achieve desired outcomes. When a task is accomplished, recognition with time-off can be as important as a cash bonus. The point is that management flexibility in compensation makes jobs more fun to a Millennial employee. It is not that money is not a primary motivator for all employees but money becomes a fungible commodity.

Pew notes that a merit system of recognition is more important than seniority to Millennials. One suspects that is true for any beginning employee but might be a discountable quality as Millennials become more senior in their organizations.
Pew suggests that Millennials excel at multitasking; i.e. being on the phone, listening to music, and downloading information on a computer while working on an assigned task. This is acknowledging “Y” generation’s dependence on technology as much as recognizing any unique ability. As in all stimulating environments, there is a risk of distraction that can negatively impact outcome. Because Millennials are outcome oriented, managers have common ground to discuss employee performance issues related to distraction. If Pew’s so called multitasking skill is interfering with acceptable outcome, there is common ground for performance discussion with a Millennial employee. Objective performance geometrics (measurement) are grounds for frequent approval and/or constructive criticism of Millennial employees.

Human beings, from the beginning of recorded history, have been motivated by three things. One is wealth, defined by money or possessions; two is power, defined by control of lives; and three is prestige, defined by social standing. The only difference is in the weight each is given by a particular generation.

The 21st century is the Millennial’s age-of-opportunity. Organizations that develop, motivate, and retain the best of this new generation will be successful; organizations that do not will struggle.

1. PewResearch, “Social & Demographic Trends”, February 24, 2010.
2. “The 2013 Millennial Impact Report” by Achieve Organization, Primarily oriented to non-profit organizations.
3. “Millennials Go To College” (2003) by Neil Howe and William Strauss.
4. “Millennial Behaviors & Demographics” by Richard Sweeney, University Librarian, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 973-596-3208,,Revised December 22, 2006
5. Y-Size Your Business by Jason Ryan Dorsey, Published 11/16/09.
6. Managing the Millennials by Chip Espinoza, Mick Ukleja, Craig Rusch, Published 2/22/10.
7. “The Millennial Generation”, March 2013, Author: Pat Breman
8. The Practice of Management-1954, The Effective Executive-1967 by Peter Drucker
9. Out of the Crises-1982 by W. Edwards Deming

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By Chet Yarbrough

This is an overview of recent best-selling books that are popular with young readers and/or parents that read to their children.  The reviews are a sampling of books that reflect on what entertains and enlightens the young, while reminding one of what it is like to be a child learning about life.

looking for alaskaLooking for Alaska

By John Green

Narrated by Jeff Woodman


JOHN GREEN (2006 Printz Award Winner-Born 8.24.77)

John Green writes a coming-of-age story about a naïve rich boy, a poor boy, and an ingénue. The rich-boy is an inexperienced innocent; the poor-boy is a leader, and the ingénue is an objectified sexual fantasy.  All three are highly intelligent.  The hook for reader’s interest is the ingénue, a girl named Alaska.

Green builds his story around the naïve rich boy, Miles “Pudge” Halter.  Pudge is infatuated with Alaska.  He is also mesmerized by the rule-breaking team leader, Chip Martin, known as “the Colonel”.  The Colonel is the planner, thinker, and organizer of a team of pranksters; e.g. Pudge, Alaska, and two others, Takumi and Lara.  As a pastime, they prank their way through high school’s junior year, the rich boy’s first year in a private school.

Pudge is growing up.  He is becoming an individual, differentiated from parents, and responsible for his own actions and decisions.  Green tells a story about life and death in “Looking for Alaska”.  Private-school connotation, Pudges’ wealth, and primary characters’ extraordinary intelligence detract from the book’s universal meaning but Green’s story speaks to every person that makes choices in life.


the book thiefThe Book Thief
By Markus Zusak

Narrated by Allan Corduner


MARKUS ZUSAK (Book Sense Book of the Year Award for Children's Literature-Born 6.23.75)
MARKUS ZUSAK (Book Sense Book of the Year Award for Children’s Literature-Born 6.23.75)

Markus Zusak uses the Grim Reaper to tell the story of Liesel Meminger’s life.  The irony of Death telling a story of life is clever but Zusak’s character development makes the story great.

Liesel is an abandoned Jewish child, adopted by a non-denominational family living in a small German town during WWII. Liesel grieves for a dead brother and lost mother but lives through her grief and hardship by developing close relationships with her new family and a young boy named Rudy.  Rudy is a war refugee hiding in her adopted family’s basement.

“The Book Thief” is Liesel Meminger. Her first stolen book is at the grave site of her dead brother. The book is dropped by a grave-digger that is learning his trade from a hand book about grave digging. Liesel is illiterate but the theft of a dropped book begins her obsession with written words. This obsession is a re-birth of her journey through life.

Like the “butterfly effect” that says a storm begins with the flap of butterfly wings, the incident of the dropped grave digger’s handbook changes Liesel’s life.


the one and only ivanThe One and Only Ivan

By Katherine Applegate, Patricia Castelao

Narrated by Adam Grupper

-8-12 Year Olds- 

KATHERINE ALICE APPLEGATE (Dororthy Canfield Fisher Children's Book Award, Kids' Choice Award for Favorite Book--Born 7.19.56)
KATHERINE ALICE APPLEGATE (Dorothy Canfield Fisher Children’s Book Award, Kids’ Choice Award for Favorite Book–Born 7.19.56)

I am Ivan.  I am a silverback gorilla.  Katherine Applegate tells a story about me.  Katherine writes about animals in the wild, at the circus, and in the zoo.  I like Katherine because she makes me feel important. I talk about life in the circus.

Katherine makes me look smart. She shows that I learn things.  I learn that my circus domain is really a cage.  I talk to my animal friends, a homeless dog that sleeps on my belly; my best friend Stella—a circus elephant, and a newly arrived baby elephant that loves my best friend.

The story is stormy in the beginning, cloudy in the middle, and sunshiny in the end.  My best friend dies. I tell my best friend, before she dies, that I will protect the baby elephant.  But, what can a caged gorilla do?

Katherine offers an answer that gives my story a sunshiny end. A gorilla seems to know a lot about the difference between a domain and a cage.  You will like Katherine’s story about me.



By R. J. Palacio

Narrated by Diana Steele, Nick Podehl, Kate Rudd

-8 Year Olds & Up-

R. J. PALACIO (First Book)
R. J. PALACIO (First Book)

Reading “Wonder” is like watching a re-run of “Leave to Beaver”. Palacio creates a June Cleaver’ family with a perfect dad, a girl named Via, a boy named Auggie, and a dog named Daisy.

Palacio writes a story that reminds one of middle’ and high school’ tedium and trauma.  The bland and horrific social experience of school is magnified by a neonatal genetic disease that mal-forms Auggie’s face.  The inherited disease makes Auggie look scary.

Auggie has eyes that are too low on a face with ears that look like cauliflower and a mouth that dribbles food when he eats. But, Auggie’s social experience resonates with every child that leaves home to attend a new school or camp for the first time.

Palacio cleverly jumps between different first-person accounts of common social experiences to show how each person feels and thinks about the same incidents.  First-person accounts reveal human’ strengths and weaknesses–readers laugh out loud, hold their breath, or cry as Auggie trudges through middle school and Via adjusts to high school.

Palacio’s “Leave it to Beaver” story challenges believability; not enough to kill enjoyment, but enough to make the story a little too sweet.



By Veronica Roth

Narrated by Emma Galvin

-Young Adult-

VERONICA ROTH (Debut Novel--Born 8.19.88)
VERONICA ROTH (Debut Novel–Born 8.19.88)

Veronica Roth creates a dystopian world made up of four human stereotypes called factions; i.e. the honest, the selfless, the brave, and the intelligent. Sixteen-year-olds are taken from their families to become educated in one of these factions which are meant to benefit society.  Families theoretically become superfluous when children reach the age of sixteen.

Aptitude tests tell sixteen-year-olds which group they are best-suited to pursue.   When they choose, they are separated from their families to attend a kind of boot camp conducted by the chosen faction.  If they fail boot camp, they are classified as “factionless”, an appellation inferring homelessness, unworthiness, and disposability.

A “Divergent” is a sixteen-year-old that fits no basic faction.  The “Divergent” threatens structured society because a “Divergent” crosses boundaries between factions. A “Divergent” is unpredictable.

Roth is an imaginative writer but her character development is not equal to her imagination.  The heroine of the piece, Tris, is a “stick-figure” until the story nears its end.  Roth’s imaginativeness is confirmed by movie plans for her book. One hopes a movie playwright and actress playing Tris offer a more fully developed heroine.


the fault is in our starsThe Fault is In Our Stars

By John Green

Narrated by Kate Rudd

-Young Adult-


John Green tells a story of an erudite sixteen-year-old with stage IV cancer, and a cancer remission patient. These are extraordinary characters that convey the normal and tragic lives lived by cancer stricken families.

At a support-group meeting, the erudite teenager, Hazel Grace Lancaster, is struck by Augustus Waters’ handsome looks. Waters is dazzled by Hazel’s perceptive intelligence.  From first introductions, readers care about Hazel Lancaster and Augustus Waters. Readers are seduced into identifying with their fates.

A binding element in John Green’s story is Hazel’s obsession with a fictional author and how he writes the end of her favorite book.  The author’s story is about a young person that is critically ill, but the book ends without knowing the fate of its ill heroine.  Hazel is obsessed with knowing what happened to the fictional character.

Hazel and Augustus find the expatriate author in Amsterdam. In a “Make a Wish” trip to the Netherlands, they question the author.  They ask what happened to the character that was ill.  Hazel and Augustus are dismayed to find the author is a broken down alcoholic with rambling answers.  The answers only make sense at the end of John Green’s heart rending story.


goodnight, goodnight, construction siteGoodnight, Goodnight Construction Site

By Sherri Duskey Rinker

Illustrator- Tom Lichtenheld

-1 year olds and up-

From Crane Truck to Excavator, each truck has his duties and when they are done it is sleepy time, both for the tough trucks and the reader!

Sherri Duskey Rinker has written an excellent book for preschoolers. It’s intuitive fun for a parent to read to a son or daughter at the end of a busy day.  All of the vehicles know their duties in a sing-song, gentle rhyming mode–smiling while they work.

All are ready for a “good night” when the day is over.  For those who have children who love trucks, and love playing with trucks, this will take the roughest, toughest listeners and relax them before bed time.

There is a “work ethic” lesson repeated throughout—all vehicles had a job to do before they rested. Tom Lichtenheld, the illustrator, does an amazing job with facial expressions on “tough trucks”. Their human characteristics are uncanny, down to the Crane Truck’s “hands” holding his Teddy Bear before he shuts his eyes to sleep; i.e. “Shhh…goodnight Crane Truck, goodnight.”



By Victoria Kann

-5-8 Year Olds-

Fifth in the “series” (Pinkalicious, Purplelicious, Goldilicious, Silverlicious) Emeraldalicious is the amazing story of Pinkalicious turning an “ordinary place” into an Emeraldalicious world.

If that’s not enough “liciouses” for you, the books are described as “readalicious”! Victoria Kann spins a wonderful tale about the wanting, the wishing, and the making it happen, for a child and her friend.

Recommended for ages 5-8, Emeraldalicious has an awesome beginning when Pinkalicious snaps her wand in half. For all using wands on a regular basis, you know you can’t be without one, it is difficult, right?

Pinkalicious commandeers a vine, plus a flower, to become her new wand. Then with rhyme and “love”, when asking for what you want, you can turn even a garbage dump into a “greentastic garden”.

With finite adult wisdom, one can see the point—try asking for things in a nice way; want what is good, and believe you can make positives happen….and they will.

Pricey at $17.99 BUT every parent I asked had at least one of the Pinkalicious books in their child’s book collection! Also a parent commented, “The Pinkalicious books also have a ‘small chapter’ series for young readers.”


the care and keeping of youThe Care and Keeping of You, The Body Book for Younger Girls

By Valorie Lee Shaefer, Cara Natterson-MD & Medical Consultant

Illustrated by Josee Masse

-8-10 Year Olds-


Millions of girls wonder what is happening to their bodies and minds between the ages of eight and ten. This is a great time for them to understand what the changes are/will be and how to take control of their health and well-being.  The sections are self-explanatory like Body Basics, Reach and Big Changes.

In keeping with the idea of the book, the primary goal is to get information into the hands of young girls that need to know what is or will be happening to their bodies as they mature. My wife put the book in the hands of her favorite eleven year old, Lindsay, for evaluation.

Lindsay said, “I would recommend this book because you learn more about your body as its growing.”  Lindsay added, “This book is useful if you don’t want to ask your mom some of those questions.”  However, Lindsay felt the book should be for girls between 9 and 12.   Lindsay disagreed with the book’s recommended ages of 8-10.   Lindsay suggested reading a book is “way easier” than consulting female adults in some families.

The realization is that difficult questions about the human body are hard for some children to ask parents.


the care and keeping of you 2The Care & Keeping of YOU2

By Dr. Cara Natterson

Illustrated by Josee Masse

-5 Out of 5 Stars for 8-12 Year Olds=


“The Care & Keeping of YOU2” moves forward in the development of young girl’s bodies and minds. Again, my wife asked a couple of 13 year olds she knew to critique the book.

Katie’s comments–“This is a great book for teenage girls. The book answers questions that girls might have about their bodies, but are embarrassed to ask someone.” “Teenage girls should definitely read this book.” ‘“The Care and Keeping of You 2’ has a lot of information.”

Maddie’s comments–“This book was very interesting.” “It is very helpful for girls who don’t like to talk to their parents about their body.” “This book taught me a lot and I think that mothers should buy this book for their daughters, but I think they should give this book to 11-12 year olds because, as a 13-year-old, I already have learned about this, and this stuff has happened to me.” “It would be helpful for the girls that haven’t gotten their periods and it would help younger girls learn more and help them prepare if their moms don’t talk to them about it.”

Dr. Natterson’s book is not for boys but a book about a boy’s growing body and its care and keeping seems like a good idea.

the perks of being a wallflowerThe Perks of Being a Wallflower

By Stephen Chbosky

-12 Year Olds and Up-

STEPHEN CHBOSKY (Independent Spirit Award for Best First Feature-Born 1.25.70)
STEPHEN CHBOSKY (Independent Spirit Award for Best First Feature-Born 1.25.70)

This is a short book telling the story of a 15-year-old’s first year of high school. The 15-year-old is exceptionally bright and observant.  He writes a series of letters to an anonymous friend about his perception and experience of high school.

The writer’s name is Charlie.  He is gathering information from his family, his teachers, and a small group of friends to help him understand his and other’s lives.  Readers voyeuristically observe Charlie’s thoughts by reading his letters.

Sam and Patrick become Charlie’s best friends even though they are seniors when he is a freshman.  Sam is a beautiful girl who Charlie wishes for as a girlfriend.  Sam has a relationship with a college freshman, whom she breaks up with, when he confesses to other relationships.  Patrick is Sam’s gay stepbrother.  Patrick has a relationship with a high school jock named Brad.  Brad breaks Patrick’s heart by punching Patrick in the face to protect Brad’s straight reputation.

Charlie experiments with his identity by kissing both Sam and Patrick without clearly understanding his own sexuality. Friendship encompasses both kisses which gives weight to “The Perks of Being a Wallflower”.


my parent has cancerMy Parent Has Cancer and It Really Sucks

By Maya and Mark Silver

-12 Year Olds and Up-

I have friends (close) and relatives (distant) with cancer.  I did learn a few things from this book.  There is useful information for all ages; particularly for those in the teenage’ years.


From “Cancer 101”, to “Losing a Parent”, to “Life after Cancer”, this book gives real-life’ situations and information about living with cancer.  There are chapters like “Dealing with Stress and Seeking Support” that apply to any serious illness in a family.

However, the book has too many redundancies.  How many times does one need to hear there are added responsibilities at the beginning of a parent’s illness?

In an effort to make quotes and highlights stand out, pages have different fonts and type sizes.  Font changes and seemingly arbitrary page divisions make the book difficult to read.  The style of writing is like an internet page with distracting links.  I found the variety of fonts and “boxed” formatting off-putting.

On balance, the book’s content trumps some of its disjointed delivery by asking and answering difficult questions about cancer.  Those questions and answers are important and need to be known.

(A Version of this Article is Posted in the “Las Vegas Review Journal” 7/14/13)

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By Chet Yarbrough


bally technologiesBally Technologies has been at the forefront of casino gaming since its beginning in 1932.  Bally Technologies offers a wide range of technology and entertainment solutions to casinos around the globe.  Services to the casino industry by Bally Technologies include gaming machines, mobile applications, iGaming platforms, casino-management systems, and player-marketing solutions.  More importantly, they are at the forefront of online gambling as it gains approval in the United States.  Bally Technologies is headquartered here, in Las Vegas, Nevada.


John Connelly, Vice President of Business Development, said, “Bally Technologies is an international organization with offices around the world; we have offices in Amsterdam, Rome, and London, to name a few”.  Bally Technologies has more than 1,000 employees in Nevada.

In February of this year, Nevada became the first State to approve online gambling.  Connelly said, “In the last two years, because of pending national approval of online gambling, Bally Technologies has increased Las Vegas employment by more than 200 people.”  Connelly explained, “Additional state regulatory approvals of online gambling and improving mobile applications will increase the size of our online gaming division, which we call Bally Interactive.”  He said, “Two hundred hires may increase to 1500, depending on market growth.”

Connelly said, “Bally Technologies offers economies of scale to both large and small customers that are processing the complex activities of the gaming industry.” Connelly explained, “We have been serving the casino industry for more than eight decades.”  With Bally Technologies early entry and experience in electronic gaming, the advent of the internet became a superhighway for expansion of the company’s business.

Connelly noted, “Job searches for Bally Technologies are often worldwide because of highly specialized needs of the company”.  But, Connelly said, “We also hire employees straight from college and have on-the-job training and continuing education programs to meet present and future needs of the company.”  He said, “Bally Technologies extends services to casinos and online gaming companies around the world.”  Bally Technologies provides back-office services to 90 percent of Atlantic City casinos.  They offer contract services to mega-casinos like Mohegan Sun and Foxwoods Resort Casino in Connecticut.

Taking a peek at Bally Technologies’ website ( there are career openings for customer service, information technology, human resources, software development, project management, and engineering.

When asked about the effect of online gambling on casino table games, Connelly said, “Online gambling is another way of reaching the customer and its growth will complement the Casino customer base.”  He added, “Online poker will educate customers about the joy of the game.”


American Casino & Entertainment Properties (ACEP) is a locally based company that owns the Stratosphere and Arizona Charlie’s casinos in Las Vegas.  They also own and operate the Aquarius Casino Resort (formerly the Flamingo) in Laughlin, Nevada.


Alec Driscoll is the Director of Gaming Development for ACEP.  Driscoll explained, “ACEP has been gearing up for a rollout of online gambling for the last two years.”  He said, “ACEP researched the market, particularly in Europe where online gambling is legal, to prepare for a launch of our own online gambling website in the United States,” rolled out in February of this year.  “It is presently a no-money website but pending regulatory approval, we plan to become a pay-for-play online gambling site,” Driscoll said.

Driscoll explained, “The website launch is a great promotional tool for their brick and mortar casinos.”  One can access directly or through ACEP’s casino website addresses.  The launch offers an educational experience for players wanting to know more about casino entertainment and gambling.  Driscoll said, “Right now, our focus is on Nevada, but we have plans to expand our online poker site as more States approve online gambling.”

Driscoll explained, “Online gambling has been around for a long time but is, just now, beginning to be legalized in the United States.”  Prior to legalization in Nevada, online gaming was a “gray market” because its base of operations was outside the United States.

Driscoll said, “ACEP’s entry to online gaming has required a great deal of research, re-education of employees, and hiring of new employees to serve what is expected to be a significant marketing opportunity.”  When asked about the steps in the process of opening an online site, Driscoll said, “We talked to operators and employees in other countries and contacted local companies like Bally Technologies to see what they could offer that fit ACEP’s corporate objectives.”

ACEP chose to create a separate company that would offer online gaming, initially as a marketing tool for their brick and mortar casinos.  The longer term objective is to become a licensed gambling website.  Driscoll said, “ACEP decided to use Bally Technologies’ gaming-platform to initiate ACEP’s entry into the online market.”  Driscoll explained, “No date-certain has been set for launching their real-money online gambling site but it is a high priority for the company.”  He added, “In the meantime, has been a great marketing tool.”

Current job openings for ACEP’s online gaming and properties can be found at

Online gaming dates back to 1969.  The success of online gaming is partly limited by technology and significantly influenced by government regulation.

WILLIAM HIGINBOTHAM (Also a member of the team that developed the first atomic bomb.)
WILLIAM HIGINBOTHAM (Also a member of the team that developed the first atomic bomb.)

The upper limits of technology have been pushed higher with programming platforms that connect people to play games.  Beginning with William Higinbotham in 1958 with “Tennis for Two”, gaming on a monitor (actually an oscilloscope screen) became a local opportunity.  By 1980, local game-player’ opportunities morphed into international game-player’ connections; video games became valuable copywriter-secured assets; e.g. Atari’s “Asteroids” and “Lunar Lander”.

With the advent of ARPANET, linking the University of California to the Stanford Research Institute in 1969, the potential for gaming became national.  In 1973, with the creation of a common computer language, local networks combined to create the internet.  With advent of the internet, a worldwide opportunity became possible for online gaming. In the background of this new environment, online gambling is introduced to the online entertainment world.


In 1994, Antigua and Barbuda in the Caribbean passed the Free Trade & Processing Act that provided for online licensing of casinos.   Internet gambling sites have increased from 15 in 1996 to 200 in 1997 (Wikipedia quote). A global industry consulting company, Frost & Sullivan, reports that online gambling revenues exceeded $830 million in 1998.

Christiansen Capital Advisors (an LLC that focuses on gaming and wagering) reportedly said that 23,000,000 people participated in some form of online gambling in 2005 on an estimated 2,000 websites.  A November 2012 report by “Global Casinos & Online Gambling” ( estimates 2012 revenue from casino and online gambling is nearly $127 billion.  An estimate from “intellogiX” ( projects that $17-19 billion of that $127 billion will be from online gambling.

ULTIMAT POKERThe United States is a late-comer to online gambling with its first online site beginning in Las Vegas, Nevada. The first licensed online gambling site in the United States was launched by Fertitta Interactive LLC.   Fertitta Interactive was founded in 2010 but a real-money online poker site had to wait until December 2011 for Nevada’s approval of online gambling.  At 9:00 am Pacific Time, April 30, 2013, Ultimate was launched.  The Golden Nugget and Station Casinos became their exclusive clients.  It has been a long march and because Fertitta Interactive is first to capitalize on a new market opportunity, they are the pioneers of real-money, American online poker.  An online source of information about what is happening in the industry is

Fertittta Interactive is blazing its own trail in this growing form of American entertainment.  In 2011, when Fertitta Interactive purchased the Oakland, California based company, Cyber/Arts Licensing LLC, they became a self-sufficient, vertically integrated online gambling enterprise.  Other Las Vegas based casino owners have taken a different road.

ACEP, Caesar’s Entertainment Corporation, and MGM decide to partner with outside companies that have developed proprietary online gambling platforms.  As noted earlier, ACEP partners with Global Technologies. Caesar’s chooses 888 Holdings PLC, a Gibraltar-based company that works with online United Kingdom’ casinos; and MGM announces plans to work with Bwin, the largest publically traded online gambling company in the world.  Both 888 and Bwin incorporated in Gibraltar in 1997.  (Gibraltar is a peninsula at the entry to the Mediterranean, off the south coast of Spain.)  Both are publicly held companies.  Bwin, in terms of employment, is the biggest with an estimated 3,000 world-wide employees.

Nevadans are at the beginning of a new era of online gaming.  Station Casinos, with its continued appeal to local resident interest in games of skill and chance, chooses to focus on creating a local brand of online poker with .  ACEP, Caesar’s Entertainment Corporation, and MGM are partnering with international gaming companies to pursue world wide appeal.  This is not to say Station Casinos will not tap the world-wide market but their beginning points are different.

A common thread in casino’ online gaming websites (both pay-to-play and no-money gaming sites) is public introduction to respective casino entertainment networks.  Everything from education in the art of gambling, to player benefits, to pictures and explanations of casino amenities will be advertised on online sites.  Online gambling sites may offer many of the same players’ benefits that casino visitors are eligible for when they play at the casino.


In 1988, UNLV created the Center for Gaming Research.  David Schwartz is the Gaming Research Center’s highly accessible Director.  He is a great source of information about the gaming industry.  The Center has a state-of-the-art library on gaming.  Schwartz said, “Online gambling is a job creator that compliments the casino industry”.  In addition to software programmers and service providers of online gambling, ancillary businesses like geo-location companies will grow.

Schwartz noted, “With New Jersey’s and Delaware’s approval, the history of online gambling is still being written.”  Swartz explained, “New Jersey and Delaware approval of online gambling includes other casino games while Nevada’s approval is for online poker only.”    Every state may have a different model for online gambling approval.

Schwartz said, “Online gambling will increase casino’ gaming revenues and state’ tax collections.”  It is too soon to know how big the increase will be.

NEVADALong term investors like Global Technologies may have a jump on the online gaming market but relative newcomers like Fertitta Interactive, 888, and Bwin are focused competitors that are keen to be the best.  To Nevadans, entrepreneurs that create jobs are just what the economy needs.

(A Version of this Article is Posted in the “Las Vegas Review Journal” 5/23/13)

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By Chet Yarbrough


Rising gas cost–whose ox is gored?  In March 2010, the Brookings Institute explained “…rising gas prices do affect both consumers and the economy adversely, and they are especially harmful to lower-and moderate-income households.”  Gas cost has both obvious and subtle impact on employment.


Though no one has been able to clearly correlate rates of unemployment with gas cost, it is an important variable in job markets.  Job seekers are the most immediately affected by rising prices but the transportation industry suffers soon after because gas cost is thirty to forty percent of industry’ fixed cost.

Frederick W. Smith is the CEO and founder of FedEx, the first overnight delivery service in the United States.  Smith comments about rising fuel costs and the negative impact it has on the economy.  Rising fuel costs are partially offset by fuel surcharges, but just as with all costs passed on to a consumer, the market will bear only so much before changing habits.GAS FEDEX TRUCK

Smith visited Las Vegas as the keynote speaker for the “National Clean Energy Summit” in August of 2012.

In Smith’s presentation, he observes that FedEx is looking at new technologies to reduce fuel costs for the company.  Fedex is working on “…all electric and hybrid-electric vehicles…and solar powered facilities…to reduce emissions and conserve fuel”.  These technological innovations are job creators but transition is not an over-night success; particularly for improved economic results.  Sharon Young, in Global Media Relations at FedEx, explained “…we currently operate and maintain more than 100 EVs & 360 hybrid vehicles in our global fleet …and have plans in place to expand our alternative energy fleet in 2013.”  Current EV deliveries are in Los Angeles, the Bay Area, Ft. Collins, New York City, Chicago, Memphis, London, and Paris.

In the holiday season, Fedex makes employment adjustments to match consumer demand.  Young said, “FedEx is increasing hours for existing employees and increasing the workforce as needed to support peak volume, which hit a record setting 19.8 million worldwide on December 17th.”  She said, “The seasonal work force for FedEx Ground operations is expected to increase by nearly 20,000.”  In the district in which Las Vegas is included, Young explained, “… seasonal positions are about 200.”  Young goes on to say, “…more than 1/3rd of the package handlers hired for seasonal work at FedEx Ground facilities retained employment with the company.”  She said, “The number of FedEx employees in the state of Nevada is 1592.”

FedEx maintains a website at for openings and job applications.  On December 7th, the following openings were shown in the Operations category: “Ops Manager”, “Service Agent”, “Operations Coordinator”, “Shuttle Driver”, “Dispatcher”, “Customs Coordinator”, “Operations Agent”, and “Sr. Secretary”.

GAS TAXI LAS VEGASLike Fedex, Taxi Cab services in Las Vegas have turned to a fuel surcharge to offset rising fuel costs.  The surcharge averages $1/trip.  Various methods are being used to compensate for fuel costs that are a big part of fixed costs in the transportation industry.  The “Las Vegas Business Press” reports, in a November 30,2012 article, that “Yellow-Checker-Star” converts its Ford Crown Victorias from gasoline to propane” at its southwest valley facility.  This emphasis on reducing gas cost exemplifies industry adjustment and implies employment opportunity for mechanics and alternate fuel companies.

In 1992, Citizens Area Transit (CAT) was formed by RTC to serve the Las Vegas area.  In


2007, the CAT was renamed RTC Transit which boast 379 vehicles.  90 of the 379 vehicles are double-deck buses that primarily serve downtown Las Vegas and the strip.  The route for the double-decker buses is called “The Deuce”.  Each double-decker bus seats 27 people on the lower deck and 53 people on the upper deck.  “The Deuce” serves the strip from the Fremont experience (in downtown Las Vegas) to Mandalay Bay on the south end of the strip. Fees for “The Deuce” are $5 for 2 hours or $7 for 24 hours with 3, 5, and 30 day passes that range from $20 to $65.


“The Deuce” route is complemented by convenient pick-up stations and kiosks along the strip that connect to the Clark-County-wide RTC transit system.  A single ride is $2, a 2 hour limit is $3 and a 24 hour limit is $5.  These buses also have discounted ticket prices for 3, 5, and 30 days, ranging from $15 to $65.

RTC tickets can be purchased on line, at major Transit stations like the one at 300 N. Casino Center Dr. downtown, or at bus stops if one has exact change.  RTC also provides Ticket Dispensing Machines at vendors like Albertsons and Walgreens.


If a prospective employee realizes owning a car will average over $7,000 a year*, mass transit is a bargain at less than $800 per year; i.e. RTC’ services in Las Vegas offer some advantages to employees living near a bus route that will take them from home, to work, and back.

The transportation industry calculates the cost of fuel when making decisions about current and future employment plans.  Airline industry giants like Southwest Airlines try to stabilize fuel costs by purchasing options in the commodities market.  Southwest Airlines buys an option to purchase fuel at a fixed price for a fixed period of time.  By fixing the price of fuel for the future, Southwest Airlines minimizes fluctuating costs to GAS-DELTA AIRLINESmake more prudent and predictable employment decisions.  Delta Airlines estimates fuel costs to be 40% of their operating cost and recently considered buying its own refinery.  Of course, gas expenditures are only one of many variables in airline-industry’ employment but fuel costs demand a seat at the employment decision table.


The American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI), in their trucking industry report, estimates fuel costs, between 2008 and the first quarter of 2010, to be 31% to 38% of operating cost.  Of course, high fuel costs are only one of several obstacles to expanding a trucking company’s work force.   **“Matt Handte of …Tribe Transportation (a Georgia Company), says younger workers don’t want to spend days on the road away from their families.”  The ATRI’ report notes that more interstate drivers are 50 years old or older.  According to an October 30, 2012 Associated Press’ article, the U.S. expects to add “…115,000 truck driver jobs per year through 2016.  But just over 16,000 Americans a year are getting trained to fill those jobs.”


Southwest Truck Driver Training is located in N. Las Vegas.  Mellody Guarjardo, the Admissions Representative that manages the school’s application office, explains that it is more difficult to place graduates of their school in local transport jobs than interstate jobs.  Guarjardo advised, “…placement in local transport jobs may be more difficult in Las Vegas because of higher unemployment rates in the Valley”.  Guarjardo said, “A weaker general economy increases student enrollment in their school.”   Silvia Emilan, a Coordinator at the Admissions office, said, “Current enrollment is up to 394 students; i.e. over 25% higher than enrollment, at this time, last year.”

Emilian explained the application process, class teaching format, and curriculum.  Emilian said, “After an applicant completes an admissions application, a thorough background check is done.”  She said, “Once an application is accepted, over 92% of the students graduate.”  Tuition for the school is $3,995.  The school offers financing and works with veterans that can use GI Bill benefits for driver training classes.

Emilian explained, “8 teachers teach morning and evening classes with 8 to 16 students in each class.”  Classes are not held at the Admissions office at 580 W. Cheyenne Ave. but at a driver training facility off Craig road, about ten minutes from the office.

Certification by the school requires 160 hours of class, ½ of which is transportation regulation training and the other ½ is “hands-on” driver-training; the school has several trucks and a bus in their driver-training’ yard.  Night students take a little longer to complete the course but graduation is from 4 to 5 weeks from enrollment.  At successful completion of the curriculum, the student has earned and is provided a “Commercial Class A driver’s license” (authorized by the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles) which allows transportation companies to offer interstate, as well as intrastate truck driving jobs, to graduates .  With completion of the school training and placement with a transportation company, the student has become a professionally qualified driver in all states of the United States.

Southwest Truck Driver Training offers placement services for graduates.   A sign painted on the glass store-front entry of the application’s office, says “life time placement assistance”.  Guarjardo acknowledges, “Job placement for training graduates is more likely for ‘over the road’ jobs, than local transport positions.”  Guarjardo explained, “This year, over 92% of the graduates have been placed; nearly all in interstate truck driving jobs.”

Fuel costs are an employment obstacle in the trucking industry when they rise to a level that depresses the economy; particularly for local transport.  When the economy is booming, trucking’ fuel prices are just a cost of doing business.  When the economy is slow, fewer truck drivers are needed because fewer business shipments are made.  However, Guarjardo notes “…truck driver training is busier in a weaker economy”; presumably because people are looking for work and are willing to train for job classifications that have openings.  Ironically, because of the shortage of interstate truck drivers (even in a slow economy), it appears openings are available if an applicant has the required training.

The expertise of employers and employees in estimating and managing fuel expense varies but right and wrong projections and decisions become real with experience; i.e. transportation companies experience gas cost as a cost of doing business; employees experience gas cost as a cost of living.  When a company underestimates the impact of gas costs on profitability, they make operational adjustments; either by changing work-process, reducing personnel, operating at a deficit until costs subside, or closing operations.  When lower or moderate income employees underestimate gas costs, they look for another job.

Both the private and public sectors act to moderate the impact of rising gas cost on employment.  Companies like FedEx, and Yellow Checker Star use technological innovation to improve fuel efficiency.  Presumably, employment opportunities are created with retrofit work.  Better fuel efficiency helps reduce fuel costs that allow companies to maintain or increase employment.  Companies like Southwest Airlines use the futures market while Delta Airlines considers vertically integrating their business by buying an oil refinery; both are trying to stabilize fuel prices to make better operations and employment decisions.  Public companies like RTC, that contract with private companies, are expanding mass transit services to encourage employees and the general public to use mass transit.

Prospective employees consider how much it costs to travel for a job interview and, if offered a job, how much it costs to get to and from work every day.  An employee might start working for $10/hour in North Las Vegas but finds traveling from Boulder City costs too much and decides, after a first paycheck, to quit.  The company loses because of two weeks training expense; the employee loses because of unemployment; the public loses because of taxes paid for unemployment benefits.

GAS-OX GORINGAnd so–whose ox is gored when gas prices increase?—EVERYONE’S.

(Posted in the “Las Vegas Review Journal” 1/13/13)



*Savings vary depending on the type of car you drive.  This comparison was with a 4 cylinder Ford Focus estimated by

**Reported by KLAS-TV 8 News NOW 10/30/2012

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